Addressing air pollution effectively in BiH will require policy, institutional, and investment interventions in various sectors, including residential and transport whose activities affect air quality. Some interventions that the government may consider include the following:
Residential. The government could develop a large-scale program to substitute traditional stoves with more efficient ones. It could start with implementing a pilot program in the short term. Lessons from such a pilot, and other existing initiatives, could be taken into account to inform the development of a possible large-scale stove replacement program. In many countries, similar programs have been implemented with targeted subsidies for project beneficiaries who cannot afford to pay the full costs of substituting their stoves with cleaner alternatives. An awareness program would help educate the public on the purpose of stove replacement, low-emission stove use, and available resources for households and promote adoption of clean stoves in households.
Additional measures such as expanding district heating could be developed over the medium to long term. Selection of interventions such as restrictions on burning of solid fuels in households, increased gas connections, expansion of district heating, and energy efficiency measures such as those contemplated in the Sarajevo Cantonal Environmental Action Plan should be based on analysis of the benefits and costs of alternative interventions. Furthermore, the distributional impacts of alternatives should be well understood to ensure that they do not disproportionately burden poor households.